How to Keep your RxJava Subscribers from Leaking


Edit: Shortly after writing this, I realized that the solution that I present here isn’t very good. I’m leaving it here just in case it can serve as a building block for better solutions.

Sometimes you don’t have control over the lifecycle of your Subscribers. In these cases, to avoid leaking your Subscriber, you have to unsubscribe from your Observable when you’re notified that your Subscriber is about to be destroyed. It can be really annoying to have to worry about unsubscribing your Subscriptions to avoid memory leaks, so in this post, I’ll show how, with a few lines of code, you can stop worrying about leaking your Subscribers.

Before I try to show how to memory-leak-proof your Subscribers, I want to give a concrete example that shows when memory-leak-proof Subscribers might be useful. This example will also clarify the problem that memory-leak-proof Subscribers are trying to solve. I spend most of my time doing Android development these days, so an Android example is the most natural way for me to elaborate on this problem, so here’s an Android-specific use-case: You’d probably want want a memory-leak-proof Subscriber when you’re writing an Activity.

An Android Activity is basically a screen that you see when you’re using an Android app. The Android framework manages the lifecycle of Activities. Activities, moreover, are also often responsible for responding to touch events.

Sometimes you want to fetch some data and then update the UI with that data in response to a touch event, and sometimes fetching data can’t be done on the main thread. Observables can be a nice way to handle this problem:

However, if the Android framework wants to destroy your Activity while your Observable is doing its thing, you run into a problem: The Observable will keep your Activity from being garbage collected, because your Activity contains a reference to an anonymous inner Subscriber and this Subscriber implicitly contains a reference to your Activity.

The straightforward solution to this is to unsubscribe from your Observable when the Activity is about to be destroyed:

Although this solution is straightforward, it puts you in an unfortunate dilemma:

  • Horn 1: You have to worry about unsubscribing from your Observer in all of your Activities in your app


  • Horn 2: You have to unsubscribe in a base Activity class that calls unsubscribe on a CompositeSubscription, have subclasses add Subscriptions to the base Activity’s CompositeSubscription, and make all of your Activities extend that base class.¹

I think there might be a better solution: If we subclass Observable to wrap our Subscribers in a Subscriber decorator that delegates work to its weakly held, wrapped Subscriber, we can keep clients from having to worry about leaking their Subscribers without forcing them to write boilerplate code.

To see how this would work, let’s start by defining the Subscriber decorator:

Next, we define the Observable subclass that adds a safeSubscribe() method to wrap the Subscriber passed in:

And that’s it. Now, clients can subscribe to an Observable without having to worry about leaking an object with a big memory footprint. Instead, only the Subscriber decorator is leaked, and since the Subscriber decorator doesn’t have a big memory footprint, its not a huge deal if it sticks around until the Observer is done doing its thing.

I would love to hear what you all think about this approach.

**Edit: **Conversation with jackhexen on the Reddit machine has made me realize that this solution is not as clean as I’ve presented it here. Activities won’t maintain strong references to their anonymous inner classes unless you store those classes in an instance variable, so technically, you’d have to store your Subscribers in instance variables to prevent them for being garbage collected. This makes the solution presented here seem significantly less appealing because I was hoping to offer a solution that kept clients from having to worry about memory management. This solution clearly doesn’t do that.


  1. This solution is discussed in the 4th part of Dan Lew’s helpful introduction to RxJava for Android.

Don't call it "MVP"

Why Pirating is Probably Wrong (.java)

comments powered by Disqus